Date of Award

Spring 5-2006

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Leadership and Research

Committee Chair

Randy Anderson

Committee Member 2

Thelma Roberson

Committee Member 3

Mary Nell McNeese

Committee Member 4

Ronald Styron


This researcher analyzed data from the database of the National Center for Educational Statistics: Education Longitudinal Studies (ELS) 2002. The study included responses from 743 principals in 752 schools and from 15,362 10th grade students from public, Catholic, and other private schools. The dissertation investigated if the percentage of school participation in afterschool/summer outreach programs could predict students’ perceptions of teachers, drug availability on campus, student misbehaviors and punishments, and attitudes toward school and grades. The independent variable was the percentage of students in afterschool/summer outreach programs as reported by principals. The dependent variables related to students’ responses to attitudes about teachers, if someone sold them drugs and if school and grades were important. Eight of the 10 variables were not statistically significant at p < .05. The teachers’ praise of students was statistically significant at .009. Whether students were suspended or placed on probation was borderline significant at .057. The study revealed participation in afterschool/summer outreach programs could predict students’ attitudes toward the importance of teachers praise and could impact if students are suspended from school or placed on probation.