Date of Award

Spring 2018

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Human Capital Development


Interdisciplinary Studies and Professional Development

Committee Chair

Dale L. Lunsford

Committee Chair Department

Human Capital Development

Committee Member 2

Heather M. Annulis

Committee Member 2 Department

Human Capital Development

Committee Member 3

Cyndi H. Gaudet

Committee Member 3 Department

Human Capital Development

Committee Member 4

Patti P. Phillips

Committee Member 4 Department

Human Capital Development

Committee Member 5

Quincy Brown

Committee Member 5 Department

Human Capital Development


The Department of Labor predicts an increase in demand for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) as the United States’ population grows older. The leaders of EMS must confront the difficulties surrounding recruitment, retention, and employment turnover of the EMS workforce to ensure a solvent employment pipeline to meet the predicted service demands. Previous researchers found that hydraulic stretchers reduced the number of occupationally acquired injuries among the EMS workforce. Grounded in human capital development and corporate social responsibility theories, this study extended from the work of Brice et al. (2012), Fredericks, Butt, and Hovenkamp (2009), and Studnek, Crawford, & Fernandez, (2011) who found that hydraulic stretchers have a positive influence on job satisfaction, lost workdays, and absenteeism.

This study examined the relationship between EMS employment turnover, retention, and recruitment and stretcher systems. This study used a causal comparative design, survey solicitation of data, and a multivariate analysis of covariance as the statistical methodology. The researcher concluded that stretcher type does not influence recruitment, retention, and turnover in this study group. This study improves the understanding of workforce outcomes as influenced by the type of stretcher systems used in EMS. Future EMS workforce research should focus on employment attractors and detractors to women in EMS and investigate the relationship among ambulance call volume, service type, EMS employment conditions, recruitment, retention, and turnover.