Date of Award

Summer 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Brad Dufrene

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Evan Dart

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Keith Radley III

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Joe Olmi

Committee Member 4 School



Check-in/Check-out (CICO) has been shown effective in reducing problem behavior (PB) and increasing academically engaged behaviors (AEB) for elementary and middle school students (Mitchell, Adamson, & McKenna, 2017); however limited research has included high school students. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness and social validity of CICO for four high school students in a general education setting. During the initial intervention phase, two students refused to participate in the CICO process (i.e., did not attend check-ins or check-outs despite multiple efforts); therefore, CICO was ineffective for these students. For two other students, CICO was ineffective for improving behavioral performance. For all students, a modified CICO procedure was implemented. For two students, the modified procedures were ineffective. For the remaining two students, numerous absences and unusual delays with state testing prevented enough data collection to fully evaluate the effects of the modified CICO intervention. Not surprisingly, students rated CICO as not socially valid. Adult participants rated CICO’s social validity variably. Results of this study are discussed in terms of contextual variables that may have prevented CICO from being effective with these students as well directions for future research.