Date of Award

Summer 8-2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Dr. Melanie Leuty

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Dr. Ashley Batastini

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Dr. Eric Dahlen

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Dr. Richard Mohn

Committee Member 4 School



Recent studies have indicated variability in cognitive change for justice-involved persons with mental illness exposed to treatments for criminal thinking and psychiatric risk factors. Research suggests that proactive styles of criminal thinking may be more difficult to change than impulsive or reactive styles. To date, however, no studies have identified risk factors for a limited response or modeled observed disparities in responsivity to interventions aimed at reducing criminal thinking. Using an archival dataset comprising 206 probationers with a dual diagnosis who were exposed to active CBT-based treatment, a latent profile analysis modeled unobserved heterogeneity in treatment response per observed changes in criminal thinking. Results found that a majority of participants endorsed significant changes in reactive criminal thinking with minimal changes in reported proactive criminal thinking. Neither pre-treatment severity of psychopathology nor compliance with psychotropic medication predicted response to treatment. While diagnosis largely did not predict responsiveness, a self-reported previous diagnosis of a psychotic spectrum disorder predicted increased criminal thinking post-treatment. Moreover, those expressing greater levels of criminal thinking after treatment were also found to express more attitudes supportive of violence. Limitations and treatment recommendations are discussed, including the need for correctional treatments to improve the responsiveness of treatment to individual factors.