Date of Award

Fall 12-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA)



Committee Chair

Dr. Elizabeth Moak

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Dr. Joseph Brumbeloe

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Dr. Michael Bunchman

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Dr. Ellen Elder

Committee Member 4 School


Committee Member 5

Dr. Edward Hafer

Committee Member 5 School



The Roma people for many years led a nomadic lifestyle scattered across various parts of the world due to various reasons including discrimination and prejudice. After settling in a particular region, Roma musicians tended to incorporate local musical elements to varying degrees into their music, resulting in the diversity and complexity of their music. Hungarian-Gypsy music was partly a result of the combination of Hungarian folk elements with Roma performance style.

This dissertation primarily examines the Hungarian-Gypsy elements in German composer Carl Loewe’s Zigeuner Sonata, 107b. The elements are musical and extramusical. The author uncovered a multitude of Gypsy musical elements throughout the five movements of this programmatic sonata, drawing upon the characteristics of the style hongrois as discussed in Jonathan Bellman’s work and verbunkos characteristics stemming from Shay Loya’s work among others. Loewe’s work provides ample evidence of Kuruc fourths, ornamentation, the imitation of violin playing (double-stops, parallel thirds and sixths), evocation of cimbalom playing, augmented seconds, along with rhythmic elements such as alla zoppa, anapest, bokázó, Lombard, and spondee, underscoring at the same time the importance of music and dance in Bohemian culture. Regarding extramusical Gypsy elements, the Roma ancestral connection to India, the Roma belief in supernatural beings and reverence for nature, and a literary association with Goethe’s Mignon areexplored among others.



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