Date of Award

Winter 12-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Chair

Anna Wan

Committee Chair School

Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Member 2

Julie Cwikla

Committee Member 2 School

Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Member 3

Kendrick Buford

Committee Member 3 School

Center for Science and Math Education

Committee Member 4

James Lambers

Committee Member 4 School

Mathematics and Natural Sciences

Committee Member 5

Rebecca Robichaux-Davis


Spatial ability has been defined as “the innate ability to visualize that a person has before any formal training has occurred, i.e., a person is born with ability” (Sorby, 1999, p. 21) and is comprised of spatial orientation and spatial skills.Each of these facets are used in everyday life. High school students can enhance their spatial visualization skills through experiences and instruction. The purpose of this study was to test an intervention with the aim of increasing high school geometry students’ spatial visualization skills. The participants in this study were high school geometry students who were randomly placed in either a technology or manipulative group. Participants were given the Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations (PSVT:R) at the beginning of the study to collect baseline data of students’ spatial visualization skills. A few weeks later, the PSVT:R was given as a pretest followed by the implementation of the intervention. The intervention consisted of spatial activities namely Quick draw, Quick images, Quick blocks, and an instructional unit that consisted of five major class activities designed to increase spatial visualization skills. The manipulative groups completed the activities using concrete, tangible models during instruction. The technology groups completed the activities using Desmos and GeoGebra. After the intervention, participants were given the PSVT:R as a posttest. A few weeks after the intervention was completed, the PSVT:R was administered one last time and a Repeated Measures ANOVA was conducted to determine if there were significant differences between the technology and manipulative groups. The results indicated the manipulative group scored higher than the technology group on all four implementations of the PSVT:R.