Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Dr. Heather Annulis

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Dr. Bhagyashree Barhate

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Dr. H. Quincy Brown

Committee Member 3 School


Committee Member 4

Dr. Dale L. Lunsford

Committee Member 4 School



Large-scale adverse events such as natural disasters and pandemics interrupt business services, initiating defining moments for organizations. The trend of people exiting the workforce compels organizations to examine turnover risk and search for factors that mitigate the impact of resignations. In response to the increase in voluntary turnover and retirements during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines four elements that have impacted the workplace since 2020–turnover intent, job embeddedness, psychological safety, and inclusive leadership.

This quantitative study examined the relationship between inclusive leadership, psychological safety, and job embeddedness on employees’ turnover intent. Professional and supervisory level employees of public sector agencies in a southeastern state completed an internet-based survey administered through Survey Monkey. The statistical analysis addressed the research objectives through correlational and multiple regression statistical analysis. The findings indicate that inclusive leadership, psychological safety, and job embeddedness were significantly related to employees’ turnover intent. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that the independent variables influenced 31% of the variance in employees’ turnover intent.

The results from this research confirm that a mixture of behaviors and interpersonal actions in the workplace forms employees’ turnover intentions. Employees protect and preserve the roles where they feel well situated and form bonds with the leaders and organizations that cultivate a sense of belongingness. The bonds provide a measure of insulation from times of crisis when valuable resources are strained.



Available for download on Thursday, May 14, 2026