Date of Award

Summer 8-2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Chair

Daniel Tingstrom

Committee Chair Department


Committee Member 2

Brad Dufrene

Committee Member 2 Department


Committee Member 3

Joe Olmi

Committee Member 3 Department


Committee Member 4

Keith Radley

Committee Member 4 Department



The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on a positive peer reporting procedure called Tootling. There has been limited research on the effectiveness of the Tootling intervention for reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom (Cihak, Kirk, & Boon, 2009; Lambert, 2012). Additionally, Tootling has primarily been utilized with lower elementary school students, and the present study evaluated the intervention procedures with upper elementary/middle school students (i.e., sixth and seventh grades). The current study also examined the effects of the Tootling intervention on individual target students referred for disruptive behavior in addition to classwide student behavior. An ABAB design across three classrooms was used to evaluate the efficacy of Tootling. Dependent variables consisted of disruptive as well as appropriate student behavior both classwide and for target students and were measured using a 10 second momentary time sampling procedure. Additionally, Tootling included an interdependent group contingency and posted feedback towards the class goal. Overall, increases in appropriate behavior and decreases in disruptive behavior were observed both at the classwide and individual student levels. Considerations for future research as well as limitations and implications for practice are discussed.