Date of Award

Spring 5-2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Studies and Research

Committee Chair

Lilian H. Hill

Committee Chair Department

Educational Studies and Research

Committee Member 2

Kyna Shelley

Committee Member 2 Department

Educational Studies and Research

Committee Member 3

Linda L. Harper

Committee Member 4

Thelma J. Roberson

Committee Member 4 Department

Educational Leadership and School Counseling


This study examined the relationship between adult educators‘ multicultural effectiveness scores and their negotiation of similarities and differences scores. The participants were in faith-based institutions, specifically Christian churches and in graduate adult education programs of universities and colleges in the United States. Multicultural effectiveness was measured by the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) that the authors reported measured multicultural effectiveness as the primary, encompassing variable. The MPQ is a five-point Likert scale with 91 items. The MPQ reliability was a Cronbach‘s alpha of .82 (Van der Zee & Van Oudenhoven, 2000). The Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS) measured the negotiation of similarities and differences. The M-GUDS is a six-point Likert scale with 45 items on the long form and 15 items on the short form. Its internal consistency and reliability were high measuring Cronbach‘s alpha .89 (Miville et al., 1999). There were 40 participants in the study.

A Pearson Correlation indicated a significant correlation, r(38)=.59, p