Freedom's Crucible: William T. Richardson and the Schooling of the Freedmen
Early in the Civil War, the Sea Islands near South Carolina and some 10,000 slaves fell into Union hands. Abolitionists saw an opportunity to aid these newly freed slaves. In what became known as the Port Royal Experiment, northern volunteers became teachers and plantation superintendents. This was perhaps the first federal involvement, though indirect, in adult basic education. Literacy education became an important aspect of the "Experiment," largely through William T. Richardson, a member of the American Missionary Association. He founded teaching in night schools for the freed slaves and promoted adult classes among A.M.A. teachers. His work with this unique adult population offers a provocative first-person look at a chapter in adult basic education's history.
Adult Education Quarterly
Rachal, J. R.
(1986). Freedom's Crucible: William T. Richardson and the Schooling of the Freedmen. Adult Education Quarterly, 37, 14-22.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/16185