Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility In Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration With Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering
Polymers and High Performance Materials
Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase-separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal annealing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester-based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV–vis spectroscopy to probe the active-layer morphology. A nonhalogenated orthogonal solvent was found to impart controlled morphological features within the exciton diffusion length scales, enhanced absorbance, greater crystallinity, increased paracrystalline disorder, and improved charge-carrier mobility. Low-boiling, fast-diffusing isopropanol allowed the greatest control over the nanoscale structure of the solvents evaluated and yielded a cocontinuous morphology with narrowed domains and enhanced paths for the charge carrier to reach the anode.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Moore, L. M.,
Youm, S. G.,
Nesterov, E. E.,
Morgan, S. E.
(2017). Three-Dimensional Morphology Control Yielding Enhanced Hole Mobility In Air-Processed Organic Photovoltaics: Demonstration With Grazing-Incidence Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9(9), 22764-22772.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/16650