Protective Effects of Testing Across Misinformation Formats In the Household Scene Paradigm
Many studies have demonstrated retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES), in which taking an initial recall test after witnessing an event increases suggestibility to subsequent misinformation introduced via a narrative. Recently, however, initial testing has been found to have a protective effect against misinformation introduced via cued-recall questions. We examined whether misinformation format (narrative vs. cued-recall questions) yields a similar dissociation in a paradigm that, to date, has consistently yielded a protective effect of testing (PET). After studying photos of household scenes (e.g., kitchen), some participants took an initial recall test. After a 48-hr delay, items not presented in the scenes (e.g., knives/plates) were suggested either via narrative or questions. Regardless of the misinformation format, we found a PET on both initial-test-conditionalised free recall and source-monitoring tests. However, initial testing also yielded memory costs, such that suggested items reported on the initial test were likely to persist on a final recall test. Thus, initial testing can protect against suggestibility, but can also precipitate memory errors when intrusions emerge on an initial test.
Quaterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Perseverseff, R. S.,
Bodner, G. E.,
Huff, M. J.
(2020). Protective Effects of Testing Across Misinformation Formats In the Household Scene Paradigm. Quaterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73(3), 425-441.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/17398