Water-Soluble NIR Absorbing and Emitting Indolizine Cyanine and Indolizine Squarine Dyes for Biological Imaging
Biological, Environmental, and Earth Sciences
Organic dyes that absorb and emit in the near-infrared (NIR) region are potentially noninvasive, high-resolution, and rapid biological imaging materials. Indolizine donor-based cyanine and squaraine dyes with water-solubilizing sulfonate groups were targeted in this study due to strong absorptions and emissions in the NIR region. As previously observed for nonwater-soluble derivatives, the indolizine group with water-solubilizing groups retains a substantial shift toward longer wavelengths for both absorption and emission with squaraines and cyanines relative to classically researched indoline donor analogues. Very high quantum yields (as much as 58%) have been observed with absorption and emission >700 nm in fetal bovine serum. Photostability studies, cell culture cytotoxicity, and cell uptake specificity profiles were all studied for these dyes, demonstrating exceptional biological imaging suitability.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry
Meador, W. E.,
Autry, S. A.,
Besetti, R. N.,
Gayton, J. N.,
Flynt, A. S.,
Hammer, N. I.,
Delcamp, J. H.
(2020). Water-Soluble NIR Absorbing and Emitting Indolizine Cyanine and Indolizine Squarine Dyes for Biological Imaging. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 85(6), 4089-4095.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/17414