NMR and Mass Spectral Analysis of Step-growth Polymers from Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition and Regioselectivity Afforded by Copper(I) and Ruthenium(II) Catalysts
Polymers and High Performance Materials
Azide alkyne cycloaddition was applied to step growth polymerization of the diazido monomer, di(3-azido-2-hydroxypropyl) ether of bisphenol-A (DAHP-BPA) with either tetraethyleneglycol dipropargyl ether (TEGDPE) or tetraethyleneglycol dipropiolate (TEGDP). Polymerizations were conducted without catalyst and in the presence of Cu(I) or Ru(II) complex. The resulting oligomers and polymers were characterized using H-1- and C-13-NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), with an emphasis on the relative abundance of 1,4- vs. 1,5-disubstituted regioisomeric 1,2,3-triazoles. Uncatalyzed reaction of DAHP-BPA/TEGDPE at 70 degrees C yielded a 55/45 mixture of 1,4/1,5-disubstituted triazoles; reaction was slow and residual alkyne end groups were observed, suggesting attritional loss of azide. Catalyzed with Cu(PPh3)(3)Br, the same system yielded 93/7, 1,4/1,5-disubstituted triazoles, and few residual end groups were detected, consistent with higher molecular weight and controlled 1:1 depletion of azide and alkyne. Cp*RuCl(COD) catalyst was not soluble in the bulk system, necessitating solution polymerization in THF. Ru(II) yielded 6/94, 1,4/1,5-disubstituted triazoles, and MALDI-TOF-MS showed an end group composition similar to that observed with Cu(I). Uncatalyzed reaction of the DAHP-BPA/TEGDP system, involving the more reactive propiolate, yielded a high proportion (85%) of 1,4-disubstituted triazole linkages, and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed a controlled 1:1 depletion of azide and alkyne groups.
Journal of Macromolecular Science Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry
Brei, M. R.,
Hanson, D. J.,
Gray, C. T.,
Storey, R. F.
(2016). NMR and Mass Spectral Analysis of Step-growth Polymers from Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition and Regioselectivity Afforded by Copper(I) and Ruthenium(II) Catalysts. Journal of Macromolecular Science Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, 53(7), 413-423.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/17593