General Zuo's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine
This paper examines the career of one of the most notable of Chinese state officials in the mid-nineteenth century, General Zuo Zongtang (1812–1885) at a time when the Qing Empire was beset by enemies on all sides along with the massive Taiping Rebellion (1851–65). The paper explores how Zuo created a coherent and flexible counter-insurgency doctrine that underpinned his suppression of the Taipings, the Nian, Muslim rebels of the northwest and the defeat of a massive Sufi revolt in Central Asia. The paper also shows how Zuo helped convince the Russians to return territory they occupied in Central Asia, thereby preserving the territorial integrity of the Qing Empire in the region.
Small Wars & Insurgencies
Swope, K. M.
(2019). General Zuo's Counter-Insurgency Doctrine. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 30(4-5), 937-967.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/18050