3-D Airgun Source Characterization and Propagation Modeling

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Conference Proceeding

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Physics and Astronomy


Mathematics and Natural Sciences


In the summer of 2003 the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) conducted a calibration experiment for a 3190‐in3 21 element seismic exploration array. Shots were recorded and calibrated to produce absolute broadband (up to 25 kHz) pressure‐time dependencies for a wide range of offsets and arrival angles. Experimental data are analysed to obtain maximum received pressure levels (200 dB re 1 μPa) and maximum sound exposure levels (177 dB re 1 μPa2 sec) for each shot. The analysis is important for investigating the potential impact on marine mammals and fish. Experimental data are modelled by using the underwater acoustic propagation model (RAM) and seismic airgun modeling packages (Gundalf and Nucleus) for a variety of offsets and arrival angles. Experimental and simulated data have demonstrated good agreement in absolute pressure amplitudes and frequency interference patterns for frequencies up to 800 Hz.

Publication Title

Society of Exploration Geophysicists - SEG International Exposition and 76tth Annual Meeting 2006, SEG 2006

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