The Status of SBIRT Training in Health Professions Education: A Cross-Discipline Review and Evaluation of SBIRT Curricula and Educational Research.

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Purpose: To assess the quality of curricular research on the Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach and determine the presence of useful training modalities, particularly motivational interviewing (MI) training, across health care training curricula.

Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of published, peer-reviewed studies in PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, Ovid HealthSTAR, and PsycINFO databases through March 2021 for English-language studies describing SBIRT, a curriculum for health care trainees, and curricular intervention outcomes. After the records were independently assessed, data were extracted and 20% of the studies were double-coded for interrater reliability.

Results: Of 1,856 studies, 95 were included in the review; 22 had overlapping samples and were consolidated into 10 nested studies, leaving 83 total. Interrater reliability ranged from moderate (κ = .74, P < .001) to strong (κ = .91, P < .001) agreement. SBIRT training was delivered to trainees across many professions, including nursing (n = 34, 41%), medical residency (n = 28, 34%), and social work (n = 24, 29%). Nearly every study described SBIRT training methods (n = 80, 96%), and most reported training in MI (n = 54, 65%). On average, studies reported 4.06 (SD = 1.64) different SBIRT training methods and 3.31 (SD = 1.59) MI training methods. Their mean design score was 1.92 (SD = 0.84) and mean measurement score was 1.89 (SD = 1.05). A minority of studies measured SBIRT/MI skill (n = 23, 28%), and 4 studies (5%) set a priori benchmarks for their curricula.

Conclusions: SBIRT training has been delivered to a wide range of health care trainees and often includes MI. Rigor scores for the studies were generally low due to limited research designs and infrequent use of objective skill measurement. Future work should include predefined training benchmarks and validated skills measurement.

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Academic Medicine





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