Electrophysiological Signatures of Inhibitory Control In Children With Tourette Syndrome and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur, especially in children. Reduced inhibitory control abilities have been suggested as a shared phenotype across both conditions but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. Here, we tested the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in children with TS, ADHD, TS+ADHD, and typically developing controls (TDC). One hundred and thirty-eight children, aged 7–14 years, performed a Go/NoGo task during dense-array EEG recording. The sample included four groups: children with TS only (n = 47), TS+ADHD (n = 32), ADHD only (n = 22), and matched TDC (n = 35). Brain activity was assessed with the means of frontal midline theta oscillations, as well as the N200 and P300 components of the event-related potentials. Our analyses revealed that both groups with TS did not differ from other groups in terms of behavioral performance, frontal midline theta oscillations, and event-related potentials. Children with ADHD-only had worse Go/NoGo task performance, decreased NoGo frontal midline theta power, and delayed N200 and P300 latencies, compared to typically developing controls. In the current study, we found that children with TS or TS+ADHD do not show differences in EEG during a Go/NoGo task compared to typically developing children. Our findings however suggest that children with ADHD-only have a distinct electrophysiological profile during the Go/NoGo task as indexed by reduced frontal midline theta power and delayed N200 and P300 latencies.

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