Predicting Potential Underreporting of Firearm Ownership In a Nationally Representative Sample

Document Type


Publication Date





Purpose: This study utilized demographic and intrapersonal variables to identify individuals who may have falsely denied firearm ownership and determined if individuals can be divided into meaningful subgroups.

Methods: Participants were United States residents (N = 3500) recruited from January to June 2020. matched to the 2010 census data for age, race, sex, income, and education level. A Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression was utilized to determine potential underreporting of firearm ownership, and a latent class analysis was utilized to determine unique subgroups of those who were identified as underreporting firearm ownership in the ZINB.

Results: Participants (N = 1306) were identified as underreporting firearm ownership (excess zeros) based on a model that included demographic and intrapersonal variables. A latent class analysis indicated that among excess zeros, three unique subgroups exist.

Conclusions: Determining who may be underreporting firearm ownership will allow for a more comprehensive understanding of firearm ownership in the US and more targeted safe storage messages that may reach those who own firearms and are at risk for firearm-related injury and death.

Publication Title

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Find in your library