History of Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense: Course of Events and Nutrition Methodology In Typical Surveys

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Nutrition and Food Systems


It was my good fortune to help brief many of the survey teams on dietary methods and to serve on 2 survey teams. Dr. Arnold E. Schaefer, executive director of the International Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND), dictated his reflections, which I edited, for the symposium, "Reflections of Dr. Arnold E. Schaefer." The course of events in a typical ICNND nutrition survey were described. This included the following: 1) protocol, 2) organization of survey team, appropriate for the country, 3) briefing of team members, 4) provision of needed equipment and supplies, and 5) planning the survey with the host country. The advance mission visit usually included Dr. Frank Berry, assistant secretary of Defense for Health and the ICNND executive director, who briefed local government officials about the survey. The supply and the equipment needs included clinical and laboratory equipment, reference books and supplies needed for routine physical examinations, dietary studies, and laboratory determinations. Host countries provided 1) personnel to serve on survey teams, 2) logistical support, and 3) unbiased random population samples for clinical and dietary studies. The methods of measuring dietary intake used are described in the manual. Measuring the nutrient intake of military personnel is usually much less difficult than of civilians. The food preparation and consumption (recipe) and food composite analysis methods were most commonly used. The diet questionnaire used for civilians, recorded amounts of specific foods consumed the previous day (24-h recall). During the Ecuador survey, Combs and Wolfe obtained similar results with the recipe, the food composite, and the 24-h recall methods in the same 28 families.

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Journal of Nutrition





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