Mineralogy and Composition of Manganese Crusts and Nodules and Sediments from the Manihiki Plateau and Adjacent Areas: Results of HMNZS Tui Cruises
Geography and Geology
Forty-four sediment samples and 23 Mn crusts and Mn nodules have been analyzed for several elements in order to characterize their geochemical nature. Most of the Mn crusts and Mn nodules are of hydrogenous origin, although one dust (U375) from the flanks of the Rarotonga volcano is thought to be of hydrothemal origin. delta-MnO2 is the principal Mn mineral in the crusts, whereas todorokite and bimessite occur in addition to delta-MnO2 in the nodules. The sediments can be divided into carbonates, with calcite as the dominant phase, and deep-sea clay, consisting mainly of illite and smectite.
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology
(1995). Mineralogy and Composition of Manganese Crusts and Nodules and Sediments from the Manihiki Plateau and Adjacent Areas: Results of HMNZS Tui Cruises. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 13(3), 321-337.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/5979