Assessing the Functions of Supportive Messages: Experimental Studies of Social Support
This article reports two studies of the process by which supportive messages in nonintimate relationships yield positive outcomes. The first experiment compares the efficacy of instrumental and emotional support in reducing distress and improving performance on a cognitive task. The second experiment examines the perceived effectiveness of instrumental and emotional support messages. The results suggest that instrumental support provided by an experimenter improves performance and is evaluated positively.
Tardy, C. H.
(1992). Assessing the Functions of Supportive Messages: Experimental Studies of Social Support. Communication Research, 19(2), 175-192.
Available at: https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/6767