Date of Award


Degree Type

Honors College Thesis


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Joseph C. Boyd, Ph.D.

Advisor Department



High intensity aerobic performance is determined by the body’s maximal ability to match lactate production and clearance rates, defined as the lactate threshold (LaTh). Intensities performed above the LaTh result in accumulation of lactate causing fatigue. In a double-blind experiment, using trained cyclists and triathletes, we investigated skeletal muscle adaptations that occurred following 28-days of Benagene supplementation (oxaloacetate). The testing protocol consisted of an initial cycle test (T1) to measure VO2max, LaTh, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), power output (PO) and heart rate (HR). Testing began after a 15-min warm-up at 75W, beginning at 100W, increasing 30W each 3-min stage until subjects could no longer maintain within 10 rpms of their self-selected pedal rate. Within 3-5 days, subjects performed the second trial (T2) that consisted of a 15-min warm-up at 100 W, followed by a 30-min cycle test to measure power and heart rate at LaTh. Subjects then repeated T1 and T2 within 3-7 days after 28-days of supplementation. Results are inconclusive at this time due to the low subject numbers (3 treatment, 3 control), which resulted from high dropout rates. It was hypothesized that the Benagene supplementation may postpone the accumulation of lactate and therefore increase PO at LaTh.