Date of Award

Spring 5-2021

Degree Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Chair

Dr. Brad Dufrene

Committee Chair School


Committee Member 2

Dr. Crystal Taylor

Committee Member 2 School


Committee Member 3

Dr. Joe Olmi

Committee Member 3 School



The present study serves to investigate the evidence-base for Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a widely used behavioral intervention. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 44 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference was used to calculate an omnibus effect for CICO, which showed that CICO significantly improves student outcomes. Effect sizes were large for several dependent variables, including academic engagement, reduction in problem behaviors, percentage of points on a daily behavior report card, and reduction in internalizing behaviors. No moderators significantly explained variability within these relationships. Social validity was assessed across CICO studies and was reported to be high. Methodological rigor was also investigated across the CICO literature base and it was found that a large portion of studies did not meet design standards. Results are interpreted within the context of limitations and future directions.