Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Does Gender Matter?
Purpose: Entrepreneurial firms contribute to economic growth, but the potential gendered nature of this contribution must be investigated as outcomes of male-owned and female-owned firms differ. The study investigates the female underperformance hypothesis in a cross-country analysis of Schumpeterian entrepreneurs. Next, it investigates if there is a gendered dimension of Schumpeterian firm contribution to economic growth.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The study utilizes both nonparametric and parametric methodologies. Through nonparametric methods, the success of female-owned and male-owned firms is compared. Next, a parametric ordinary least squares regression model tests if there is a gendered nature of an entrepreneurial firm's economic contribution.
Findings: In nonparametric analyses, female-owned entrepreneurial firms in developed countries perform similarly to male-owned firms, while in developing countries male-owned firms significantly outperform female-owned firms. The author also finds strong evidence that the gender of the Schumpeterian entrepreneur does not matter in the contribution in economic growth.
Research Limitations/Implications: In all countries, the number of female-owned entrepreneurial firms was significantly lower than that of male-owned firms. The findings point to consistent cultural barriers for women in innovation-related fields and persistent gendered norms in entrepreneurship. Thus, removal of cultural barriers and continued support for Schumpeterian entrepreneurship will benefit women and contribute to a country's economic growth.
Originality/Value: The data for this study is a unique utilization of the Enterprise World Survey to identify Schumpeterian entrepreneurial firms. Additionally, the study challenges the female underperformance hypothesis and contributes to the literature on the role of entrepreneurship in economic growth.
Crane, Sarah R., "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Does Gender Matter?" (2021). Student Publications. 73.