Title

Inference Based on Alternative Bootstrapping Methods in Spatial Models with an Application to County Income Growth in the United States*

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-1-2011

Department

Political Science, International Development, and International Affairs

Abstract

This study examines aggregate county income growth across the 48 contiguous states from 1990 to 2005. To control for endogeneity, we estimate a two-stage spatial error model and implement a number of spatial bootstrap routines to infer parameter significance. Among the results, we find that outdoor recreation and natural amenities favor positive growth in rural counties and property taxes correlate negatively with rural growth. Comparing bootstrap inference with other models, including the recent General Moment heteroskedastic-robust spatial error estimator, we find similar conclusions suggesting bootstrapping can be effective in spatial models where asymptotic results are not well established.

Publication Title

Journal of Regional Science

Volume

51

Issue

5

First Page

880

Last Page

896