Alternate Title

Comments on Density Inversions in Marine Shallow Waters and Beyond

Document Type

Short Communication


It has been shown within the past 70 years that salinity and thus density inversions are often detectible in shallow bays and estuaries. This terminology means that surface salinities are sometimes higher than those at lower depths. The first such discoveries in this country were made by Sumner, Louderback, Schmitt and Johnston (1914) in San Francisco Bay. They used Negetti-Zambta reversing thermometers for temperature and silver nitrate titration for salinity determination. These were by then considered to be classical methods and had been worked out in northern Europe, mostly in Scandinavia. They were introduced to the United States Gulf Coast and the authors in 1931 by Frank W. Weymouth, of Stanford University, who headed the Shrimp Investigations of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries from 1930, which were later taken over by Milton J. Lindner.

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