Author Guidelines

Author Instructions

This instruction is for authors intending to submit a manuscript to JETDE. Before submitting an article to JETDE, please ensure you have read and understood the Aims and Scope of the journal and that you have attended to the formatting of your manuscript as detailed below. Submissions that do not comply with the instructions will not be considered. In support of promoting a fair and unbiased representation of research, please ensure that self-citations of the submission do not exceed 10% of the total references in the manuscript.

To submit an article to JETDE, you need to first register as an Author in the system.

The length of a JETDE article is restricted to a maximum of 8000 words, including figures, tables, and references.

Structure and Formatting
Manuscripts are to be submitted in English, using spelling and punctuation as per the Oxford English Dictionary. Before submission, please remove Endnote, Mendeley, or other field codes. Please also do not use styles. You can use the template to assist with the formatting.

The complete submission should include a cover page, declaration statement, and the main manuscript. The cover page should be compiled in the following order:

(a) paper title
(b) name(s) of the author(s)
(c) ORCID ID (if available)
(d) affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
(e) email address(es) of the author(s)
(f) contact information (i.e., mailing address and email address) for the corresponding author

The declaration statement should be compiled in the following order:
(a) data availability statement
(b) funding statement
(c) conflict of interest disclosure
(d) ethics approval statement
(e) participant consent statement
(f) permission to reproduce material from other sources (put N/A if this does not apply to your manuscript)
(g) clinical trial registration (put N/A if this does not apply to your manuscript)

The main manuscript should be compiled in the following order:
(a) paper title
(b) abstract, keywords
(c) main body
(d) acknowledgment (optional)
(e) references

In-text citations and reference list need to conform to the latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style manual, 7th edition). Examples can be found on the APA site (http://www.apastyle.org).

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Peer Review Process

JETDE is fully double-blinded, peer-reviewed by independent academic editors and reviewers. We only publish articles that have been approved by highly qualified researchers with expertise in a field appropriate for the article. After receiving a manuscript, one of the editors will be appointed as Handling Editor for your manuscript. This selection is based on the Editors' availability and suitability as well as potential conflicts of interest. Upon receiving a manuscript, the Editor has the option to reject it outright. This may happen if it is not a good fit for the journal or is of insufficient quality. Providing the Editor is satisfied, they will initiate the peer review process. The Editor then appoints two external reviewers. Aquila system helps them to identify suitable reviewers, but editors are also free to nominate reviewers from contacts within their field. Reviewers do not see the author's information and the identities of the reviewers are not disclosed to the author(s). Providing they accept the request to review, the reviewers will read and assess the manuscript. They will then make one of the following recommendations:

  • Publish Unaltered
  • Consider after Minor Changes
  • Consider after Major Changes
  • Reject

Using the submitted reviews, the Editor is then able to make a final recommendation on the manuscript. A manuscript must be rejected if the majority of the reviewers recommend doing so. Based on the recommendation made by the reviewers, further steps may be necessary:
a. Publish Unaltered: The manuscript will receive a further check from the Editorial Team for consistency. Once complete, the author will be notified of the acceptance of their manuscript.
b. Consider after Minor Changes: The author will receive feedback and be asked to resubmit an amended version addressing the reviewers’ concerns. The author will also submit a note with responses to all comments reviewed. The Editor will check the amended manuscript and ensure the concerns have been addressed. If satisfied, the Editor can accept the manuscript.
c. Consider after Major Changes: The author will receive feedback and be asked to resubmit an amended version addressing the reviewers’ concerns with the responses to the concerns. The amended manuscript will be sent to the original reviewers to be reassessed. The Editor will then make a recommendation and may ask for further amendments.
d. Reject: The manuscript is immediately rejected.

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Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

Authorship and Contribution
JETDE assumes all authors have agreed with the content, gave explicit consent to submit, and obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out before the work is submitted. Authors are recommended to adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines, it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines (based on/adapted from ICMJE, Defining the role of authors and contributors, and Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication, McNutt at all, PNAS February 27, 2018):
All authors whose names appear on the submission must have:
1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work.
2) drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content.
3) approved the version to be published.
4) agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Contribution Statements
In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, JETDE recommends authors include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author to promote transparency. Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:

  • Free text. All authors contributed to the study's conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name], and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Example: CRediT taxonomy
  • Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….

For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable, a statement should be included in regards to who originated the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.

For articles that are based primarily on the student's dissertation or thesis, it is recommended that the student is usually listed as the principal author:
A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006

Corresponding Author
One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed. The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:

  • ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission, including the names and order of authors.
  • managing all communication between the Journal and all co-authors, before and after publication.
  • providing transparency on the re-use of material and mentioning any unpublished material (for example manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor.
  • including disclosures, declarations, and transparency on data statements from all authors in the manuscript (see above).

The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case, please make sure the Corresponding Author is indicated in the manuscript.

The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may be stated as the mailing address. Addresses will not be updated or changed after the publication of the article.

Changes of authorship
Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript. Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.

Adding and/or deleting authors at the revision stage is generally not permitted, but in some cases, it may be warranted. The reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stage. For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative who could be a direct relative. In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in the case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors' institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.

Author identification
Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID as author identification when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential, which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.

Responsibilities of authors, reviewers, and editors
JETDE fully endorses the COPE International Standards for Editors and Authors. As such, there are a number of responsibilities that all stakeholders are expected to uphold relating to the publication process. These responsibilities include, but are not limited to, the following statements.

Editors must:

  • Evaluate manuscripts solely on the basis of intellectual content.
  • Maintain confidentiality by not disclosing any information about the author, except to editors, editorial board members and/or the publisher, if appropriate.
  • Maintain confidentiality by not disclosing any information about the submitted manuscript except to potential reviewers, editors, editorial board members and/or the publisher, if appropriate, until that manuscript has been rejected or published.
  • Ensure that the names, email addresses, and other personal information entered in the journal site are used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and are not made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
  • Ensure that each submission is anonymously reviewed by at least two qualified peer reviewers.
  • Maintain objectivity in reviewing manuscripts, providing authors with constructive feedback that is free of personal criticism.
  • Not request any charge or fee to authors for article submission or processing.
  • Not accept funds, goods, services, or other forms of sponsorship in exchange for publishing a manuscript.
  • Take responsive action when there are ethical or conflict-of-interest concerns raised regarding a submitted manuscript or published paper. These actions will be determined on a case-by-case basis, and may result in a number of outcomes, including (but not limited to) amending the paper, publishing an erratum document or retracting the paper.

Authors must:

  • Ensure that their manuscript adheres to the highest standard of academic integrity and ethical practice.
  • Alert the editor(s) to any potential conflict(s) of interest related to the manuscript and/or study.
  • Submit a manuscript that is an entirely original work that has not been copied in whole or in part from other works. If the manuscript contains copyrighted materials, the author should note this in their cover letter and forward letters of permission to the editor(s).
  • Provide the editor(s) with a letter stating that the manuscript is original material that has not been published and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.

  • Ensure that the work of others is cited and/or quoted accurately and completely. Plagiarism takes many forms. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that their manuscript does not contain any plagiarized content, including reusing content they have published elsewhere (self-plagiarism)
  • Represent the research data that underlies the manuscript accurately.
  • Maintain accurate and complete copies of study data associated with the submitted manuscript.
  • If applicable, maintain accurate and complete records of the ethics documentation for research involving human subjects from their home institution(s).
  • Make no knowingly fraudulent or inaccurate statements in the manuscript.
  • Provide enough detail in the methodology section of the manuscript to allow for the work to be replicated.
  • Limit authorship to individuals who made a significant contribution to the study and/or manuscript.
  • Report errors or inaccuracies in the manuscript to the editor immediately upon discovery so that efforts can be made to correct or retract the paper.

Reviewers must:

  • Maintain confidentiality by not disclosing any information about the submitted manuscript with anyone except the journal editors.
  • Provide a timely review that does not unnecessarily lengthen or hinder the peer review process.
  • Provide an accurate and objective review that contains constructive feedback and is free of personal criticism.
  • Provide meaningful feedback that contributes to the academic rigor of the paper and assists the editor in making an editorial decision.
  • Identify instances of unacknowledged sources within the manuscript to the best of their abilities.
  • Alert editors of any potential conflicts of interest in reviewing the manuscript, including conflicts related to the authors of a manuscript, content of a manuscript, or funding sources related to the study.

Complaints and Appeals
Authors may appeal a manuscript decision by emailing both the handling Editor who handled the manuscript and the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. The email message must clearly state the case for why the decision should be changed. Authors can appeal only if they (a) identify factual errors made by the reviewers or Editor that had a major impact on the decision, or (b) can provide a substantiated claim of unfair treatment and/or bias in the review process. Appeals for any other reason will be denied without further consideration. Appeals that meet the identified criteria will be discussed among the Action Editor, the Editor-in-Chief, and one other member of the editorial team. When the Editor-in-Chief is the Action Editor, an additional member of the editorial team will be consulted. The three editors will review the appeal and vote to uphold or reverse the original decision. Final decisions will be based on a majority vote (i.e., decisions need not be unanimous). Authors should expect to receive a decision on their appeal within one week of submission.

Conflicts of Interest
JETDE requires all authors to disclose any potential sources of conflicts of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial, or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to: patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this on the cover page. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively disclose with the submission ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

Data Sharing and Repository
Authors are encouraged to share or make open the data supporting the results or analyses presented in their paper where this does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy or security concerns. Authors are encouraged to deposit copies of their paper in an institutional or other repository of their choice, including submitted version, accepted version (Author Accepted Manuscript), and published version (Version of Record).

Ethical Oversight
JETDE follows COPE guidelines in ethical oversight. For studies involving human or animal subjects, JETDE requires that information about appropriate institutional review board approval be included with the submission or described within the article.

For research involving human subjects, authors should explain how informed consent was obtained from all participants. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any reasonable possibility that complete anonymity cannot be maintained. The privacy of human subjects should never be violated without prior informed consent. Identifying information should be excluded from the study data unless the information is essential for the study purposes and the subject (or their legal representative) has given prior written informed consent. However, subject information should never be falsified or modified. When informed consent has been given by the subjects, it should be included in the article.

JETDE takes seriously all allegations of potential misconduct. JETDE will follow the COPE guidelines outlining how to deal with cases of suspected misconduct. In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor to contact and share manuscripts with third parties, for example, the author(s)' institution(s) and ethics committee(s). JETDE may also seek advice from COPE and discuss anonymized cases in the COPE Forum. The editor may also involve JETDE’s independent ombudsman.

Research misconduct. All research involving humans (including human data and human material) and animals must have been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework (see our [Ethics] policy for further information). If there is suspicion that research has not taken place within an appropriate ethical framework, the Editor may reject a manuscript and may inform third parties, for example, the author(s)' institution(s) and ethics committee(s). In cases of proven research misconduct involving published articles, or where the scientific integrity of the article is significantly undermined, articles may be retracted.

Data falsification and fabrication. Data falsification is manipulating research data to give a false impression. This includes manipulating images, removing outliers or "inconvenient" results, changing, adding, or omitting data points, etc. Data fabrication means the making up of research findings. Any questions regarding data integrity raised during or after the peer review process will be referred to the Editor. The Editor may request (anonymized) underlying study data from the author(s) for inspection or verification. If the original data cannot be produced, the manuscript may be rejected or, in the case of a published article, retracted. Cases of suspected misconduct will be reported to the author(s)’ institution(s).

Publication misconduct. JETDE will follow the COPE guidelines outlining how to deal with cases of potential publication misconduct.

Plagiarism. JETDE actively checks for plagiarism. All submissions will be first checked with plagiarism detection software Turnitin. If plagiarism is identified, the COPE guidelines on plagiarism will be followed. JETDE follows COPE's definition of plagiarism.

Redundant/overlapping publication. Redundant (or overlapping) publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of their published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals, to only adding a small amount of new data to a previously published paper. Authors submitting a contribution to JETDE who have related material under consideration or in press elsewhere should upload a marked copy at the time of submission and draw the editor's attention to it in their cover letter. Authors must disclose any such information while their contributions are under consideration by JETDE; for example, if they have submitted a related manuscript elsewhere not written at the time of the original JETDE submission. If part of a contribution that an author wishes to submit to JETDE has appeared or will appear elsewhere, the author must specify the details in the covering letter accompanying the JETDE submission. JETDE will consider submissions containing material that has previously formed part of a Ph.D. or other academic thesis that has been published according to the requirements of the institution awarding the qualification.

Authors should correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency on which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

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Publication Cost

There are no page charges or submission fees from JETDE.

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Open Access Statement

JETDE provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The journal does not charge authors or readers at any time.

Readers are free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format under the following terms: (a) must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), and indicate if changes were made. Readers may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use; (b) may not use the material for commercial purposes; (c) if remix, transform, or build upon the material, readers may not distribute the modified material, and (d) may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

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Post Publication

Upon acceptance, the article will be exported to undergo typesetting. Once typesetting is complete, authors will sign an Author's Warranty and Copyright Agreement. Once authors have completed this, the article will be processed and authors will receive the proofs. The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After the release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Changes to published articles that affect the interpretation and conclusion of the article, but do not fully invalidate the article, will, at the Editor(s)' discretion, be corrected via publication of a Correction that is indexed and bi-directionally linked to the original article.

On rare occasions, when the interpretation or conclusion of an article is substantially undermined, it may be necessary for published articles to be retracted. JETDE will follow the COPE guidelines in such cases. Retraction notices are indexed and bi-directionally linked to the original article. The original article is watermarked as retracted and the title is amended with the prefix "Retracted article:"

Editorial Expressions of Concern
When an Editor becomes aware of serious concerns regarding the interpretation or conclusion of a published article, they may choose to publish a statement alerting the readership. Scenarios in which Editorial Expressions of Concern may be published include prolonged investigations of very complex cases and when the concerns may have a significant and immediate impact on public health or public policy. An Editorial Expression of Concern may be superseded by a subsequent Correction or Retraction but will remain part of the permanent published record.

Removal of Published Content
In exceptional circumstances, JETDE reserves the right to remove an article from the website. Such action may be taken when (a) JETDE has been advised that content is defamatory, infringes a third party's intellectual property right, right to privacy, or other legal rights, or is otherwise unlawful; (b) a court or government order has been issued, or is likely to be issued, requiring removal of such content; (c) content, if acted upon, would pose an immediate and serious risk to health. Removal may be temporary or permanent. Bibliographic metadata (e.g., title and authors) will be retained and accompanied by a statement explaining why the content has been removed.

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