Guoqiang Cui


As an important variable in online learning environment, the construct of social presence has been widely studied by researchers in order to investigate students’ online communication behavior and their related performance. This study will provide an overview of the assessment of social presence throughout its historical development. In this review, both primary subjective and objectives measures of social presence will be introduced, followed by criticisms towards current social presence measures, and offer recommendations for future development of social presence measurement tools.