Author ORCID Identifier

Naoshi Hiraoka https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1452-7500


This paper prorposes eight design principles to nurture autonomy of college students, based on re-conceptualization of Michael Moore's Transactional Distance Theory (TDT). After proposed in 1970’s, TDT has been helping to concepturalize distance education in terms of psychological, not physical, distance among people involved. TDT, on the other hand, has been creating confusions and misinterpretations when utilized in the research and practices of distance education. COVID-19 has forced all educational practices to be offered as distance education, which made us realized the importance of student autonomy, when limited guidance could be offered. Utilizing the framework of TDT, this paper proposes eight ways to create and then withdraw scaffoldings to help learners more self-independent and autonomous.

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Declaration Statement

This paper has been presented at ICOME2021, 19th International Conference on Media in Education 2021, held on August 18-20, 2021, organized by Chonnam National University, South Korea.