The data governance framework is a critical reference for organizations to develop data governance plans, carry out data governance processes, and evaluate the effects of data governance. This study employs content analysis based on the existing literature to extract the core elements of vocational college data governance, including 17 primary indicators and 32 secondary indicators from the perspectives of process, organization, and content. Based on the 5W1H principle, a theoretical prototype of the data governance framework for vocational colleges is established. Following this, two rounds of expert consultations were conducted with twelve experts in data governance from vocational colleges, focusing on the importance, clarity, practicality, and interaction of the framework elements. This iterative process resulted in the formation of a data governance framework for vocational colleges, encompassing top-level design, governance processes, and governance evaluation.

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data availability statement: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.

funding statement: This paper is supported by Research on online education system, model and evaluation of Vocational Colleges Based on system theory (Project Number: BCA 200084), one of the educational projects of the National Social Science Foundation in the 13th Five-Year Plan in the year of 2020.

conflict of interest disclosure: There are no financial conflicts of interest to disclose

participation consent statement: The Authors confirm: -that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); -that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; -that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any; -that its publication has been approved (tacitly or explicitly) by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work is carried out.

permission to reproduce materials from other sources: N/A clinical trial registration: N/A