Yan Sun


The importance of integrating technology into the teaching and learning of K-12 education and preparing teachers for technology integration has long been recognized. This paper presents a review of the research literature on the barriers and challenges of preparing teachers for technology integration. This paper also covers a critical analysis of the theoretically and empirically based measures proposed in previous literature to deal with these barriers and challenges. Based on the literature review and the critical analysis, the EMPIRe model is proposed in this paper as a thinking tool facilitating teachers’ learning of technology integration. Potential applications of the EMPIRe model are also discussed.